Research tracking regulation trends in 30 European nations has found that most are adopting higher taxes and more restrictions on options such as alcohol, tobacco and junk food during the Covid recovery.

Epicenter’s survey, which started in 2016, shows that post-pandemic, lifestyle tax rates are rising. The research highlights an increase in sugary drink taxation, which has now been introduced in 12 countries, up from five in 2017. More countries are also taxing e-cigarette fluid, with the number up from 11 in 2019 to 13 in 2021.